A successful dental practice required high-quality dental instruments and tools. Dental professionals used these instruments for patient treatment and diagnosis. There is a large quantity of dental equipment that is essential for patient care. A few are used for diagnostic purposes for the initial dental checkup and disease identification while the other are used for the treatment modalities. The dental instruments are usually made of stainless steel that can be sterilized in the autoclave and reused for the patients. The sterilization prevents cross-contamination but the repeated use of instruments reduces their efficacy. The other type of instrument that is used is disposable kits. these are made for the single-use and discarded after use.
Types of dental instruments
The dental instruments can be hand instruments and rotary instruments. Hand instruments have three main parts including the handle, shank, and head. The head can be cut as well as non-cutting depending upon the instruments used. The rotary instruments are high-speed or slow-speed instruments like dental burs and scalers. They mostly have a cutting head.
- Diagnostic instruments:
The diagnostic instruments include the three most commonly used instruments. It includes dental Mirror, Explorer, and Tweezer. Diagnostic instruments are the basic tools in dentistry.
- Dental Mirror
A dental mirror is an essential tool used for diagnostic as well as treatment purposes. It helps the dentist look upon the tooth structure and aid in the retraction of the cheek, tongue, and oral structure during dental treatment. It can be single-sided or double-sided. The mirror provides the direct and indirect vision of oral structures. The concave mirror magnified the tooth and makes the dental treatment easy and accurate. Some mirror has a detachable head that can be replaced after multiple uses.
Explorer has a hook shape double-sided head. It is one of the important diagnostic instruments. The Sharpe end of the instrument can aid in caries detection and rule out the rough tooth structure. It is also beneficial during the root canal treatment for the identification of canals. It should be used with caution on the carious tooth as it can cause tooth exposure.
The diagnostic set includes the tweezer that is used to place the cotton rolls and handle the soft tissues. It is one of the important components of the diagnostic set.
Surgical forceps are used for the removal of teeth. they are available in different shapes according to their use. The head has jaw-like beaks for grasping the tooth structure. The handle of forceps offers the easy and comfortable grip that is essential for the application of forces. The forceps can be reused after sterilization. The shape of forceps varies and depends upon the tooth to be removed. The extraction forceps for kids are smaller in size and shape and remove the milk teeth. the oral surgical procedures utilize specific instruments including retractors and elevators. The elevator kit includes straight and curved elevators. This tool helps in the luxation of tooth structure and visibility of the surgical site. For the removal of root structures, the small head elevator is mostly used. The periosteal elevator aid in the soft tissue elevation in oral surgery. These instruments deliver controlled forces to the tooth structure and prevent accidental trauma to the adjusted structure of oral tissues. The suction tips also fall under the surgical category. High-speed suction for the blood and slow volume for saliva removal.
The operative procedure in dentistry includes tooth filling. The cavity on the tooth surface is filled with the specific filling material. the instruments include the filling placement, condensation, and cavity preparation. The composite filling instruments are made of a specific material that prevents the stickiness of restorative material. the composite kit has a plastic instrument and finishing tools. The instrument can tolerate high-temperature changes with dimensional change.
Rotary instruments are electric-driven high-speed dental tools. It includes high-speed burs and finishing instruments. The burs are made of stainless steel with diamond-coated heads. There are a few carbide burs that are used for the cutting of bone. The diamond burs are available in various sizes and shapes. The round burs help in the removal of tooth structure and cavity preparation. The inverted cone burs help to prepare the cavity floor. the other rotary instruments include the rotary files for endodontic treatments.
Orthodontic treatment helps to treat the mal occluded teeth. It changes the position of the tooth by application of forces. There are various types of orthodontic instruments including band removal tool forceps, Cotton Pliers, Straight Probes, and applicators. Cotton pliers are now used for both the placing of cotton rolls for isolation and the intra-oral retrieval of small objects. Likewise, A wire cutter, also known as a pin and ligature cutter, is distinguished by two tapered beaks with sharp cutting terminal ends. The pointed end’s tip is used to cut small surface wires (less than 0.015 inches) and stainless-steel ligatures.
The selection of instruments is very critical in dental practice. Always buy high-quality and durable instruments. The change of instruments after a specific time prevents accidental damage during dental treatment.
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