We know all the instruments that are traditionally used in endodontics, do we know how they are classified? What novelties currently exist in the market in terms of instruments used in endodontics? In this article, we briefly organize a classification of the instruments traditionally used in endodontics and we comment on some novelties.
According to the classification of the great authors, some will establish the different categories of instruments that are used to carry out an endodontic treatment. According to Kuttler, they are divided into trepanation instruments, biomechanical preparation instruments, and root filling instruments. However, we consider that Grossman has made a more detailed classification: instruments for exploration, for debridement, instruments for expansion, and instruments for obturation. However, we have organized it differently, although taking into account its guidelines and updates in the specialty.
Classification of endodontic instruments:
Instruments for exploration and diagnosis in endodontics:
In some bibliographical sources, these types of instruments are referred to as instruments and material for diagnosis. We could include here even the typical and inevitable mirror, cotton tweezer, and the explorer, accompanied by an endodontic explorer:
- The Explorer: facilitates the location of the entrance hole to the root canals. With two ends and long conical tips at right and obtuse angles. (Not to be used to insert into canals or to heat or insert to condense gutta-percha.) The anatomy of the tooth dictates the most common places where the canals are located, but pulp stones, calcifications, or restorations that have previously taken place can alter the anatomy of these canals, therefore, the endodontic explorer is extremely useful.
- Pulp testers(apex locator): also, the elements used for thermal tests to determine the response of the dental pulp when an electrical, thermal or mechanical stimulus is applied.
Root Canal Opening Instruments
Trepanation cannot be the same in all teeth, so there is specific instrumentation to access the pulp chamber for each tooth since each one has special characteristics that we must take into account for the amputation of the pulp chamber. Between them we have:
- Round burs and frustoconical burs.
- Endo Z: Used to improve access and properly remove the pulp horns. There is high and low speed.
- Gates Drills: Used to achieve pre-widening. They have a short, flame-shaped cutting end, with slightly spiraled lateral cutting blades. The head is connected to the stem by a long, thin neck.
- Spoons or Excavators: Mainly used for dentin removal.
- Instruments for Expansion
In this sense, they are those that can be introduced without problems in the root canal. Between them we have:
- Nerve tyers: Nerve tyers are an element for the extirpation of the nerve, not an element to widen the canals. It is formed from a conical metal tip to which metallic scales are raised. In this way, the nerve puller enters the canal cleanly, but as it exits it catches on the pulpal tissue, pulling it out of the canal. For this use, a thicker rib tie that fits loosely in the canal is used. Always loosely in the channel, otherwise the risk of fracture of the channel increases considerably. They are also known as barbed probes and must be single-use.
- Files: There are different types of files. Type L files, Hedstroem files… For example, the mission of the K files is to widen the tooth canals. This type of file is inserted little by little into the channels 1/2 turn by 1/2 turn while pressing against each of the walls so that the friction widens the channel. The process is repeated against each wall until the diameter of the canal is large enough to use a file of the next size. This process should not be done too quickly as the canal must be sufficiently widened before proceeding with the next file. The file must be cleaned repeatedly during use.
With the introduction and use of endodontic power, we also involved rotary files. If you want to know more about files, visit our article Everything you need to know about manual Endodontic files and another article on Rotary files where you will find all the detailed information about files.
Instruments for root filling
There are many materials and instruments that revolve around root canal filling, such as spacers, obturators, gutta-percha, and even a lighter and spatula.
- Spacers: There are two types, digital spacers, and manual spacers. In itself, the spacers allow a space to be opened in a canal during the root filling, to place the accessory cones of gutta-percha and in this way achieve the total obliteration or sealing of the canal.
- Condensers: the condensers allow to cut the gutta-percha cones and perform the vertical condensation.
- In the filling step, although they are not instruments as such, we include gutta-percha, absorbent paper tips, and cement.
Instruments for dental isolation
Dental isolation is essential in endodontics. Its routine use will greatly contribute to the success of many treatments. Below we mention everything you need to perform dental isolation.
- Rubber Dam: Installation of the rubber dam takes a few minutes, but the benefits are easily outweighed. It is essential for moisture control, improves visibility, and protects the buccal, labial, and lingual areas of the oral cavity. The increased visibility and protection it offers make the operation much more efficient.
- Dike drilling machine.
- Clamps and PortaClamps
- Young’s arch.
In addition to insulation, other accessories are used in endodontics, and without them, we could not carry out the root canal treatment correctly, among them we have the rules for measuring the depth of the root canal, burners, mixing spatulas, glass tile, rubber, or silicone bumpers, sponges and many more. If you want to know all the instruments and materials used in Endodontics, visit our dentist supplies categories to find endodontics instruments and materials products in detail.
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